Ghostly faces and invisible verse found in medieval King Arthur text

From Fox News:

Ghostly faces and lines of verse previously invisible to the naked eye have been uncovered in the oldest surviving medieval manuscript written entirely in Welsh.

“The Black Book of Carmarthen,” dating to 1250, contains texts from the ninth through 12th centuries, including some of the earliest references to Arthur and Merlin.

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i.e. vs e.g

Here’s a quick grammar tip for today. You’ve probably wondered the rule behind when to use i.e. versus when to use e.g.

Both i.e and e.g. are based in Latin.  I.e.stands for id est, meaning “that is.” E.g. stands for exempli gratia, meaning “for example.”

I was reading a good way to remember this, according to the Grammar Girl, is to associate i.e., which starts with the letter i, by “in other words.” Associate E.g., which starts with e, with for example.

i = “in other words”

e = “example”

The Norman Conquest: The Battle of Hastings and the Fall of Anglo-Saxon England


The Norman Conquest: The Battle of Hastings and the Fall of Anglo-Saxon England

By Marc Morris

Paperback: 464 pages
Publisher: Pegasus; 1 edition (December 15, 2014)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1605986518

Overview:

A riveting and authoritative history of the single most important event in English history: the Norman Conquest.An upstart French duke who sets out to conquer the most powerful and unified kingdom in Christendom. An invasion force on a scale not seen since the days of the Romans. One of the bloodiest and most decisive battles ever fought.This new history explains why the Norman Conquest was the most significant cultural and military episode in English history. Assessing the original evidence at every turn, Marc Morris goes beyond the familiar outline to explain why England was at once so powerful and yet so vulnerable to William the Conqueror’s attack; why the Normans, in some respects less sophisticated, possessed the military cutting edge; how William’s hopes of a united Anglo-Norman realm unraveled, dashed by English rebellions, Viking invasions, and the insatiable demands of his fellow conquerors.

Rating on Amazon: 4.5 stars (178 reviews)

Codex Gigas

The Codex Gigas is one of the largest surviving medieval manuscripts in the world. Believed to have been created by Herman the Recluse in the Benedictine monastery of Podlazice in Bohemia, the collection contains the Vulgate Bible as well as additional historical documents written in Latin. The monastery was destroyed during the Hussite Revolution. For more on the Hussite Revolution, I would recommend Victor Verney’s book Warrior of God.

The Codex Gigas is also commonly known as the Devil’s Bible due to the large illustration of the devil found inside. The manuscript now resides in the National Library of Sweden in Stockholm.

Stuff You Missed in History Class has a good podcast covering this topic as well as links to additional reading about the codex.

*image copyright, author attribution: Kungl. biblioteket

More news on Richard III

From Smithsonian.com

“They Found Richard III. So Now What?”
What the remains of the “hunchback” king can teach us about other English royals

The last time Richard III was buried in Leicester, England, he had been taken from a battlefield, slung naked over a horse, stabbed in the buttocks with a dagger and thrown into a shallow grave. That was late August 1485. On Thursday, March 26, 2015, Richard will be buried again. This time will be different.

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Medieval Engineers

Medieval Engineers is a sandbox game about engineering, construction and the maintenance of architectural work and mechanical equipment using medieval technology. Players build cities, castles and fortifications; construct Mechanical Devices and Engines; and perform landscaping and underground Mining.

Medieval Engineers utilizes a realistic volumetric-based physics engine with a focus on structural integrity: all game objects can be assembled, disassembled, damaged or destroyed, and the object’s mass and structure influences its integrity. The game comes with creative mode and an early prototype of survival mode. This is the second “engineering” game developed by Keen Software House. The first is Space Engineers, which sold over 1 million copies in its first year and is still a bestseller.

Medieval Engineers concentrates on construction aspects, but can be played as an action game too. It is expected that players will avoid engaging in direct man-to-man combat and instead use their creativity and engineering skills to build war machines and fortifications. Medieval Engineers shouldn’t be about troops; it should be about the Machinery you build. Inspired by real medieval technology and the way people built architectural works and mechanical equipment using medieval technology. Medieval Engineers strives to follow the laws of physics and real history and doesn’t use technologies that were not available in the 5th to 15th century.

Medieval Engineers is currently in development and is expected to be released into beta February 19, 2015.


*Above product description is from the Medieval Engineers Wiki

Oldest cannonball in England found

From Fox News:

The oldest surviving cannonball in England has been rediscovered on a medieval battlefield.

The cannonball, which was lost for several years, was likely used in the Battle of Northampton in 1460, one of the battles in the decades-long Wars of the Roses. The giant ball has two large dents from a few bounces, as well as a gouge mark that contains fragments of sand from the area.

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What did King Henry VIII really want from a wife?

From the BBC:

Henry VIII: Britain’s most famous king. Big, bold and brash, he is the epitome of ‘Merrie England’.

Ruling between 1509 and 1547, his marriages to a succession of six women became something of a Tudor soap opera and probably his most talked-about legacy.

So, as king of England and one of Europe’s most eligible royals, what did he want in a wife, and, more specifically, a queen?

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